Storm damage on coral reefs: references

Alexander M Kerr alexander.kerr at
Sat Mar 22 00:05:05 EST 1997

On Tue, 18 Mar 1997, PUT O. ANG wrote:

> We are developing some models on the effect of disturbance on corals and
> coral reefs and would appreciate knowing if you have information on the
> effect of storms.


> Thank you very much and please reply to my email address listed below:
> Put O. Ang, Jr.
> Department of Biology
> The Chinese University of Hong Kong
> Shatin, NT
> Tel no. 852-2609-6133
> Fax no. 852-2603-5646
> email: put-ang at

Dear Dr. Ang,

Below are most of the references ive found on the influence of tropical
cyclonic storms on coral reefs.  Youll find that most of the data is
qualitative or pre- and post-storm surveys of small areas.  After 12
years, David Stoddart's appeal for systematic, multiscale investigations
of hurricane effects has gone largely unheeded.  One reason for this is
perhaps demography: severe hurricanes are uncommon in areas with high
densities of marine biologists.  But I think that the greatest obstacle to
a better understanding of the biological effects of storms has been a
reluctance to learn the meteorology, wave modelling, physics, etc.  I
think the best work in this direction is by Terry Done and colleagues
(Done, various years; Massel and Done 1993; Done and Potts).



Alexander M. Kerr
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
Osborn Memorial Laboratories
Yale University
New Haven  CT  06520-8104
alexander.kerr at
mamulan at

Andres, N. G. and J. D. Witman. 1995. Trends in community structure on a
Jamaican reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 118: 305-310.

Aronson, R. B. 1992. The effects of geography and hurricane disturbance on
a tropical predator-prey interaction. Journal of Experimental Marine
Biology and Ecology 162: 15-33.

Aronson, R. B. 1993. Hurricane effects on backreef echinoderms of the
Caribbean. Coral Reefs 12: 139-142.

Aronson, R. B. 1994. Scale-independent biological processes in the marine
environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology 32: 435-460.

Aronson, R. B. 1995. Landscape patterns of reef coral diversity: a test of
the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. Journal of Marine Biology and
Ecology 192: 1-14.

Aronson, R. B., K. P. Sebens and J. P. Ebersole. 1992. Hurricane HugoUs
impact on Salt River submarine canyon, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.

Ball, M. M., E. A. Shinn and K. W. Stockman. 1967. The geological effects
of Hurricane Donna in south Florida. Journal of Geology 75: 583-597.

Beecher, H. A. 1973. Effects of a hurricane on a shallow-water population
of damselfish, Pomacentrus variabilis. Copeia 1973: 613-615.

Blair, S. M., T. L. McIntosh and B. J. Mostkoff. 1994. Impacts of
Hurricane Andrew on the offshore reef systems of central and northern Dade
County, Florida. Bulletin of Marine Science 54: 961-973.

Bythell, J. C., M. Bythell and E. H. Gladfelter. 1993a. Initial results of
a long-term coral reef monitoring program: impact of Hurricane Hugo at
Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 172: 171-183.

Bythell, J. C., E. H. Gladfelter and M. Bythell. 1993b. Chronic and
catastrophic natural mortality of three common Caribbean reef corals.
Coral Reefs 12: 143-152.

Connell, J. H. 1972. Community interactions on marine rocky intertidal
shores.  Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 3: 169-192.

Connell, J. H. 1973. Population ecology of reef-building corals. Pages
205-245 in O. A. Jones and R. Endean, eds. Biology and Geology of Coral
Reefs, Volume II: Biology. Academic Press, New York, New York, U.S.A.

Cooper, M. J. 1966. Destruction of marine flora and fauna in Fiji caused
by the hurricane of February 1965. Pacific Science 20: 137-141.

Denny, M. W., T. L. Daniel and M. A. R. Koehl. 1985. Mechanical limits to
size in wave-swept organisms. Ecology 55: 69-102.

Dollar, S. J. and G. W. Tribble. 1993. Recurrent storm disturbance and
recovery: a long-term study of coral communities in Hawaii. Coral Reefs
12: 223-233.

Done, T. J. 1992a. Effects of tropical cyclone waves on ecological and
geomorphological structures on the Great Barrier Reef. Continental Shelf
Research 12: 223-233.

Done, T. J. 1992b. Constancy and change in some Great Barrier Reef coral
communities: 1980-1990. American Zoologist 32: 655-662.

Done, T. J. and D. C. Potts. 1992. Influences of habitat and natural
disturbances on contributions of massive Porites corals to reef
communities. Marine Biology 114: 479-493.

Edmunds, P. J. and J. D. Witman. 1991. Effect of Hurricane Hugo on the
primary framework of a reef along the south shore of St. John, US Virgin
Islands. Marine Ecology Progress Series 78: 201-204.

Emanuel, K. A. 1987. The dependence of hurricane intensity on climate.
Nature 326: 483-485.

Emanuel, K. A. 1988. The maximum intensity of hurricanes. Journal of the
Atmospheric Sciences 45: 1143-1155.

Emery, 1962. Marine Geology of Guam. Geological Survey Professional Papers
403-B: 1-76.

Fenner, D. P. 1991. Effects of Hurricane Gilbert on Coral Reefs, fishes
and sponges at Cozumel, Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science 48: 719-730.

Flood, P. G. and J. S. Jell. 1977. The effect of cyclone RDavidS (January,
1976) on the sediment distribution patterns on Heron Reef, Great Barrier
Reef, Australia. Proceedings of the Third International Coral reef
Symposium 1: 119-125.

Fong, P. and D. Lirman. 1994. Damage and recovery on a coral reef
following Hurricane Andrew. Research & Exploration 10: 246-248.

Glynn, P. W., L. R. Almod
Goreau, T. F. 1964. Mass expulsion of zooxanthellae from Jamaican reef
communities after Hurricane Flora. Science 145: 383-386.

Grigg, R. W. 1983. Community structure, succession and development of
coral reefs in Hawaii. Marine Ecology Progress Series 11: 1-14

Harmelin-Vivien, M. L. and P. Laboute. 1986. Catastrophic impact of
hurricanes on atoll outer reef slopes in the Tuamotu (French Polynesia).
Coral Reefs 5: 55-62.

Highsmith, R. C., A. C. Riggs and C. M. DUAntonio. 1980. Survival of
hurricane-generated coral fragments and a disturbance model of reef
calcification/growth rates. Oecologia 46: 322-329.

Hobson, E., J. Chess and D. Howard. 1995. Anomalous damage inflicted by
Hurricane Iniki on a Hawaiian coral reef. Bulletin of Marine Science 57:

Hoffman, R. J. 1986. Variation in contributions of asexual reproduction to
the genetic structure of populations of the sea anemone Metridium senile.
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Holt, R. D. 1993. Ecology at the mesoscale: the influence of regional
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Hubbard, D. K. 1992. Hurricane-induced sediment transport in open-shelf
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of Sedimentary Petrology 62: 946-960.

Hubbard, D. K., K. M. Parsons, J. C. Bythell and N. D. Walker. 1991. The
effects of Hurricane Hugo on the reefs and associated environments of St.
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Hunter, C. H. 1993. Genotypic variation and clonal structure in coral
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JTWC (Joint Typhoon Warning Center). 1991. Tropical cyclones affecting
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Jackson, J. B. C. 1986. Modes of dispersal of clonal benthic
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Jackson, J. B. C. 1991. Adaptation and diversity of coral reefs.
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Jury, S. H., W. H. Howell and W. H. Watson III. 1995. Lobster movements in
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Karlson, R. H. 1991. Fission and the dynamics of genets and ramets in
clonal cnidarian populations. Hydrobiologica 216/217: 235-240.

Kaufman, L. S. 1983. Effects of Hurricane Allen on reef fish assemblages
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Knowlton, N. and J. C. Lang. 1981. Evidence for delayed mortality in
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Kobluk, D. R. and M. A. Lysenko. 1992. Storm feature on a southern
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Kobluk, D. R. and M. A. Lysenko. 1993. Hurricane effects on shallow-water
cryptic reef molluscs, Fiji Islands. Journal of Paleontology 67: 798-815.

Kohn, A. J. 1980. Populations of tropical intertidal gastropods before and
after a typhoon. Micronesica 16: 215-228.

Laboute, P. 1985. Evaluation o damage done by the cyclones of 1982-1983 to
the outer slopes of the Tikehau and Takapoto Atolls. Proceedings of the
Fifth International Coral Reef Congress 3: 323-329.

Levin, S. A. 1992. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology
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Lirman, D. and P. Fong. 1995. The effects of Hurricane Andrew and Tropical
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Lirman, D. and P. Fong. 1996. Sequential storms cause zone-specific damage
on a reef in the northern Florida Reef tract: evidence from Hurricane
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Mah, A. M. and C. W. Stearn. 1986. The effect of Hurricane Allen on the
Bellairs fringing reef, Barbados. Coral Reefs 4: 169-176.

Massel, S. R. and T. J. Done. 1993. Effects of cyclone waves on massive
coral assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef: meteorology, hydrodynamics
and demography. Coral Reefs 12: 153-166.

Miller, A. I., G. Llewellyn, K. M. Parsons, H. Cummins, M. R. Boardman, B.
J. Greenstein and D. K. Jacobs. 1992. Effect of Hurricane Hugo on
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Rogers, C. S., M. Gilnack and H. C. Fritz III. 1983. Monitoring of coral
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