Ameer.Abdulla at jcu.edu.au
Wed Feb 21 23:48:39 EST 2001
I agree with Michael's comments. His suggestion of including nearby reefs
as control sites is a sensible as that would account for the spatial
variability within the system. Surveying fish communities before and after
the project will account for temporal variability. These ideas follows
Green's (1979; 1989; 1993) BACI, Before-After and Control-Impact sampling
design, and Underwood's (1991; 1993) extension of the protocol in the
multiple BACI design. The idea is that to conclude an impact is to detect
a significant (statistical) or important change in the difference between
indicator variables (e.g. species abundance or diversity, habitat
variables, etc.) in two places, the impact and the control site.
Although adequate replication may be beyond the scope or logistics of your
REEF surveys, the overall framework I mentioned would be the minimum
required if you hope to detect any anthropogenic effects on fish
assemblages or other habitat variables. In your situation, you have the
advantage of prior notice of development and sufficient time for baseline
studies, both of which are luxuries in impact assessment and monitoring of
Here are some refs. that may be useful...Hope this helps a bit. Good luck.
Green, R.H. 1979. Sampling Design and Statistical Methods for
Environmental Biologists. Wiley, New York.
-----. 1989. Power analysis and practical strategies for environmental
monitoring. Environmental Research. Vol. 50: 195-205
-----. 1993. Application of repeated measures designs in environmental
impact assessment and monitoring studies. Australian Journal of Ecology.
Vol. 18: 81-98.
Underwood. A.J. 1991. Beyond BACI: Experimental designs for detecting
human environmental impacts on temporal variations in natural
populations. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. Vol.
-----. 1993. The mechanics of spatially replicated sampling programmes to
detect environmental impacts in a variable world. Australian Journal of
Ecology. Vol. 18: 99-116.
Ameer A. Abdulla
Marine Resource & Protected Area Management
CRC Reef Research Centre &
School of Tropical Environment Studies and Geography
James Cook University of North Queensland
Townsville, QLD 4811
Centre Webpage: http://www.reef.crc.org.au/
School Webpage: http://www.tesag.jcu.edu.au/
E-mail: Ameer.Abdulla at jcu.edu.au
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