When was the first Marine Park/Reserve established

Mark Spalding Mark.Spalding at unep-wcmc.org
Mon Sep 3 09:26:15 EDT 2001

I've been digging about on the WCPA database of marine protected areas. I think there are quite a few sites older than  Fort Jefferson, but probably the majority of these are coastal and do not include significant areas of open sea. Good candidates for the first include:

- Wilson's Promontory National Park, Australia. First reserved in 1898, NP status in 1905, with coastal waters added in in 1908.
- Matang Hunting Reserve, Malaysia. First established in 1904 and incorporating large mangrove areas.
- Breton National Wildlife Refuge, USA. First establish 1904.

It is difficult, with some of these, for me to chase up the boundary definitions of the original site. You might also argue that marine areas were not the primary object of protection, but I think you would certainly have to argue this for Fort Jefferson too!

And of course the first real protected reefs were probably those set aside under traditional reef cultures, especially those of the Pacific Islands.


Mark Spalding, PhD
Senior Marine Ecologist                             
UNEP-World Conservation Monitoring Centre   www.unep-wcmc.org
219 Huntingdon Road                                 Tel: +44 (0)1223 277314
Cambridge, CB3 0DL                                  Fax: +44 (0)1223 277136
UK                                    e-mail:mark.spalding at unep-wcmc.org
Research Associate
Cambridge Coastal Research Unit
Department of Geography
Downing St

>>> <Tom_Schmidt at nps.gov> 08/31/01 08:38pm >>>

The date of the Presidential Proclamation  creating Fort Jefferson NM was
January 4 1935 !

                    Tom Schmidt                                                           
                                         To:     "jacob Dafni" <jdafni at netvision.net.il>  
                    08/31/01 03:21       cc:     coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov           
                    PM EDT               Subject:     Re: When was the first Marine       
                                         Park/Reserve established(Document link: Tom      


According to the legislative history of Dry Tortugas National Park, (70
miles west of Key West, FL, USA), Fort Jefferson National Monument became
the World's first marine protected area when Franklin Roosevelt signed
Presidential Proclamation No. 21112 (Stat. 3430). The Monument name was
changed to Dry Tortugas National Park in 1992 with management purposes to
protect and interpret a "pristine subtropical marine ecosystem, with
special attention to intact coral reef communities".

Tom Schmidt
Marine Biologist
Everglades and Dry Tortugas National Parks
Homestead, FL 33034

                    "jacob Dafni"                                                           
                    <jdafni at netvisi       To:     <coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov>          
                    on.net.il>            cc:     (bcc: Tom Schmidt/EVER/NPS)               
                                          Subject:     When was the first Marine            
                    08/30/01 01:29         Park/Reserve established                         
                    AM MDT                                                                  

Hi All listers

For a forthcoming publication, I need the following piece of information:

Which was the first Underwater marine park and/or coral nature reseve in
the world, and when was it formally established?

Thanks for your cooperation

Jacob Dafni

Dr. Jacob Dafni
P.O box 6469
jdafni at netvision.net.il 
jdafni at hotmail.com 

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<DIV><FONT face="Arial (hebrew)" size=2>Hi All listers</FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT face="Arial (hebrew)" size=2>For a forthcoming publication, I
need&nbsp;the following piece of information:</FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT face="Arial (hebrew)" size=2>Which was the first
Underwater&nbsp;marine park and/or coral nature reseve in the world, and
was it formally established?</FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT face="Arial (hebrew)" size=2>Thanks for your cooperation</FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT face="Arial (hebrew)" size=2>Jacob Dafni</FONT></DIV>
<DIV><FONT face="Arial (hebrew)" size=2></FONT>&nbsp;</DIV>
<DIV><FONT face="Arial (hebrew)"
&lt;~ &lt;°))))&gt;&lt;~&lt;°))))&gt;&lt;~<BR>Dr.
Jacob Dafni <BR>P.O box 6469 <BR>Eilat<BR>Israel<BR><A
href="mailto:jdafni at netvision.net.il">jdafni at netvision.net.il</A><BR><A
href="mailto:jdafni at hotmail.com">jdafni at hotmail.com</A><BR><A
">http://www.come.to/jacob-dafni</A><BR><A href="
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Subject: When was the first Marine Park/Reserve established
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