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Christopher Hawkins chwkins at
Mon Sep 3 16:52:51 EDT 2001

Hello all,

It is interesting to hear all of the answers to the question
"When was the first marine park established?"  I have always had
difficulty with the semantics as far as MPA and marine park etc.
 The first true marine park as we know it today may well be the
John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park off Key Largo, Florida (as
cited in several publications), December 1960.  Though I suppose
it depends on one's definition of 'marine park'.  I doubt though
that Ft. Jefferson or other early ones were MPAs or parks as we
know them today, especially in light of how the rise of
ecotourism has helped to catagorize many of them.  Good luck!

Christopher Hawkins
Centre for Tropical Coastal Management Studies
University of Newcastle

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