Carrying capacity, etc.

Patrick Scaps patrick.scaps at
Thu Jan 30 08:36:43 EST 2003

Dear Pedro,

You will find informations concerning carrying capacity in
coral reef diving
in the following papers:

Schleyer M.H., Tomalin B.J. 2000. Damage on south african
coral reefs and an
assessment of their sustainable diving capacity using a
fisheries approach.
Bull. Mar. Sci. 67(3): 1025-1042.

Davis D., Tisdell C. 1995. Recreational scuba-diving and
acrrying capacity
in marine protected areas. Ocean & Coastal Management. 26(1)
: 19-40.

Zakai D., Chadwick-Furman N.E. 2002. Impacts of intensive
diving on reef corals at Eilat, northern Red Sea. Biol.
Conser. 105:

Harriott V, Davis D, Banks S. 1997. Recreational diving and
its impact in
marine protected areas in Eastern Australia. Ambio. 26:

Dixon J.A, Scura LF, van't Hof T. 1993. Meeting ecological
and economic
goals: marine parks in the Caribbean. Ambio. 22: 117-125.

Chadwick-Furman, N.E., 1997. Effects of SCUBA diving on
coral reef
invertebrates in the US Virgin Islands: implications for the
management of
diving tourism. In: den Hartog, J.C. (ed), Proceedings of
the Sixth
International Conference on Coelenterate Biology, Nationaal
Museum., pp. 91-100.

Sincerely yours,

Dr. SCAPS Patrick
Ph D Marine Biology
Laboratory of Numerical Ecology and Ecotoxicology
University of Sciences and Technologies of Lille
59 655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cédex
Tel: 33 0320436517
E-mail: patrick.scaps at

----- Original Message -----
From: "coral-list-daily"
<owner-coral-list-daily at>
To: <coral-list-daily at>
Sent: Wednesday, January 29, 2003 7:05 AM
Subject: coral-list-daily V3 #20

> coral-list-daily      Wednesday, January 29 2003      Volume 03 : Number
> Need information on carrying capacity
> Reproduction of Porites lutea
> recovery/erosion
> Re: question nitrates phosphates
> ----------------------------------------------------------------------
> Date: Tue, 28 Jan 2003 10:32:53 -0500
> From: "Pedro Alcolado" <alcolado at>
> Subject: Need information on carrying capacity
> Dear Coral lister,
> I need to get information about other papers than Hawskin's and Roberts'
> =
> (1997) about carrying capacity in coral reef diving. I am participating
> =
> in the elaboration of tourist diving regulations, and so far I have =
> Haskin's and Roberts' figures of 5000-6000 divers/site/year. I think it
> =
> would be good a figure for begining that could be revised an adjusted =
> after subsequent monitoring, but I would like to know about other =
> alternative numbers. I would appreciate to receive that information, as
> =
> well as any relevant comment on the issue.
> Cheers,
> Pedro
> ~~~~~~~
> For directions on subscribing and unsubscribing to coral-list or the
> digests, please see .
> ------------------------------
> Date: Tue, 28 Jan 2003 10:33:53 -0500
> From: "James Rolfe Guest" <scip9051 at>
> Subject: Reproduction of Porites lutea
> Dear coral-list,
> I am working on the reproductive cycle of the scleractinian coral
> Porites lutea in Singapore. Most of the colonies I have sampled are
> mature in April and/or May and I think that spawning occurs in those
> months after the full moon (although I haven't witnessed spawning of
> this species yet). I would be interested to make comparisons of the
> timing of spawning of this species in Singapore with other coral reef
> locations. Does anyone know of any publications (other than those listed
> below) or has any anecdotal evidence of spawning in P. lutea in any
> other location?
> The publications which include reproduction of P. lutea that I have so
> far are:
> Harriott VJ (1983) Reproductive Ecology of Four Scleractinian Species at
> Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 2:9-18
> Kojis BL & Quinn NJ (1981) Reproductive Strategies in Four Species of
> Porites (Scleractinia). Proc 4th Int Coral Reef Symp 2:145-151
> Marshall SM & Stephenson TA (1933) The Breeding of Reef Animals I. The
> Corals. The Great Barrier Reef Expedition 1928-29. Sci Rep 3:219-245
> Babcock RC et al (1986) Synchronous Spawning of 105 Scleractinian Coral
> Species on the GBR. Mar Biol. 90:379-384
> Heyward AJ (1989) Reproductive Status of Some Guam Corals. Micronesica
> 21:272
> I look forward to hearing from you.
> Cheers,
> James Guest
> Research Scholar
> Department of Biological Sciences
> National University of Singapore
> Blk S2 14 Science Drive 4
> Singapore 117543
> Tel: +65 68746867
> E-mail: scip9051 at
> ~~~~~~~
> For directions on subscribing and unsubscribing to coral-list or the
> digests, please see .
> ------------------------------
> Date: Tue, 28 Jan 2003 10:34:55 -0500
> From: "Emily Hardman" <emilyhardman at>
> Subject: recovery/erosion
> Dear All,
> As part of my PhD I am investigating the after-effects of a coral
> bleaching  event in Rodrigues (Indian Ocean) by looking at coral
> recovery (new  recruitment) and bioerosion.
> Would anyone please be able to recommend some good guides for
> identifying  coral recruits, at least down to genus level, and also for
> identifying  internal macro-boring organisms commonly found in
> Indo-Pacific branching  coral rubble?
> Thank you very much for your help,
> Emily Hardman
> - ------------------------------
> Emily Hardman
> Tropical Ecology Group,
> School of Ocean Sciences,
> University of Wales Bangor,
> Menai Bridge,
> Anglesey,
> LL59 5AB
> UK
> Tel: +44 (0) 1248 382 863
> E-mail: osp829 at
> ~~~~~~~
> For directions on subscribing and unsubscribing to coral-list or the
> digests, please see .
> ------------------------------
> Date: Tue, 28 Jan 2003 18:20:45 -0500
> From: Debbie MacKenzie <debimack at>
> Subject: Re: question nitrates phosphates
> Hello Dianne, coral-list,
> At 06:42 PM 25/01/2003 -0400, you wrote:
> >Anita at Noaa suggested a post this for consideration.
> >
> >I live on a small island in the Grenadines in the Caribbean.  We are =
> >seeing long black stringy algae covering reefs and choking it out.  =
> >Hoping the answer was in water testing we bought LaMotte phosphate and =
> >nitrate test kits....our results are not as expected
> I'm curious: what did you expect to find (and why?) and what did you
> actually find? Were you expecting to find elevated nutrient levels?
> (This
> is my first guess, since it is routinely thought to be an important
> cause
> of increased algae growth these days.)
> I can't help you in the specifics of discussing exactly what is growing
> on
> your reefs, but am interested in your observations.
> The increasing dominance of marine algae, especially fine or filamentous
> forms, is a very broad pattern that seems to be occurring in marine
> environments virtually everywhere now. I am not convinced (although many
> are) that this change is basically a reflection of an increasing
> availability of plant nutrients in coastal waters. (Besides increasing
> nutrient availability, declining populations of herbivores are also
> sometimes suspected, and doubtless this plays a role...but it is the
> effect
> of changing nutrient dynamics on the algae that interests me the most.)
> The pattern of declining populations of marine invertebrates and their
> replacement by algal growths is also strongly evident in temperate
> zones.
> In my area, Atlantic Canada, we have no shallow water coral reefs but
> there
> has been a marked decline in coastal sessile invertebrates (barnacles,
> mussels...roughly analogous to your corals). Unpolluted areas that were
> once dominated by barnacles and mussels now predominantly support
> seaweed.
> (e.g. see )  And within the
> established seaweed communities there is a marked shift away from the
> long-dominant, heavier perennial species toward shorter lived algae with
> much finer structures. The automatic interpretation of this changing
> appearance of seaweed seems to be that this new, elaborate algal growth
> must have resulted from an increasing availability of plant nutrients
> (from
> pollution). To some, it seems cut and dried.
> But the signals from the long-established, older, heavier seaweeds as
> they
> decline strongly suggest that these plants are experiencing a lowered,
> rather than an increased, availability of nutrients. Stunted growth,
> lowered levels of pigmentation, lowered resistance to environmental
> stressors such as light, heat and dessication...these patterns are
> visible
> in all of the typical large seaweed groups in my area. And the increased
> growth of filamentous algae is dramatic, indeed it also gives the
> impression that it might be "choking out" the others. (I have a
> collection
> of photos on my website, several galleries are linked from this page:
>  )
> I have been puzzled at the quick conclusion that commonly seems to be
> made
> that the increase in filamentous algae has been stimulated by an
> increase
> in nutrient availability. The filamentous growth style, with its
> relatively
> high surface area:volume ratio, gives these organisms a natural
> advantage
> over the thicker-fleshed algae under conditions where nutrient
> availability
> is lowered.
> Maybe at some level the interpretive difficulty is related to our
> (subconscious?) comparison of seaweeds to terrestrial plants. It is
> commonly known that applying fertilizer to a vegetable garden results in
> a
> more lush, elaborate growth of plants. So, when we witness an
> increasingly
> elaborate growth of seaweed, is this partly why we assume that it must
> be
> the result of increased fertilization?
> But when we view the vegetable garden, we are generally only seeing the
> "tops" of the plants (stalks, leaves, fruits, etc, responsible for
> photosynthesis and energy storage) as the "roots" (oft-filamentous
> tissues
> responsible for uptake of dissolved nutrients) are invisible. In
> terrestrial plants, "tops" and "roots" do not respond to fertilizer in
> the
> same way. Agricultural research has shown that, when well fertilized,
> the
> root:top ratio of plants (for example, corn) declines. Relatively more
> elaborate root development occurs in the fertilizer-poor plot, and roots
> then make up a greater fraction of the total mass of the plant. (And
> this
> type of plasticity is not at all surprising.)
> At first glance, seaweeds may well remind us of the "tops" of
> terrestrial
> plants, but what is waving in the water column is in fact analogous to
> both
> the "tops" and the "roots" of the cornfield. Viewed in this light,
> today's
> proliferation of filamentous marine algae (more "root"-like types) and
> decline in heavier in heavier, fleshy species (more "top"-like) should
> raise the suspicion that one fundamental change that is occurring in the
> oceans is a decline in the availability of plant nutrients. (One may
> also
> imagine the corals as being more essentially like "tops" than
> "roots"...)
> Dianne, it may seem as if I have strayed rather far from your initial
> question, but the matter of discovering the true relationship between
> trends in fertilizer availability and growth changes in marine algae is
> a
> hugely important one. Thanks for raising it.
> Debbie MacKenzie
> ~~~~~~~
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> digests, please see .
> ------------------------------
> End of coral-list-daily V3 #20
> ******************************
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