Diver Tourism

Saba Marine Park (2) smp at unspoiledqueen.com
Mon Jul 16 08:40:32 EDT 2001

Another LAC based management plan is found on our web-site www.sabapark.com

David Kooistra
Manager Saba Marine Park/Saba Hyperbaric Facility
PO Box 18, The Bottom
Saba, Netherlands Antilles

Phone: 599 416 3295
Fax: 599 416 3435

Web-site: www.sabapark.com

P.S. please note our new e-mail address smp at unspoiledqueen.com

  ----- Original Message ----- 
  From: Dricot-Fellenius 
  To: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov 
  Sent: Tuesday, 26 June, 2001 20:56
  Subject: Re: Diver Tourism

    I'm running a research project looking at the potential effects of an = 
    increase in diver tourism in the Turks and Caicos Islands, based mainly = 
    around methods for establishing the carrying capacity of the reefs here. = 
    Does anyone know of any papers / web-sites / journals that would be = 
    Iain Ellis, 
    Marine Policy Lecturer, 
    Center for Marine Resource Studies, 
    PO Box 007, South Caicos

  Here are a few papers and websites. You may want to check out the broader literature on carrying capacity in tourism as well. The diving papers have not really addressed the changing view of carrying capacity. For a number of years, carrying capacity has been viewed as a management philosophy rather than the application of a number as in the past. Several methods are more common, such as LAC (limits of acceptable change) and TOMM (tourism optimization management model). see http://www.forestry.umt.edu/personnel/faculty/borrie/planning.html (excerpt below). 

  Essentially, carrying capacity focuses attention on the question, "How many is too many?" when the question confronting managers is, "What are the appropriate or acceptable conditions for visitation and how do we achieve them?" An example of a planning system that builds upon the framework of LAC is the Tourism Optimization management Model (TOMM) developed in Australia. TOMM is a management approach designed to monitor and manage tourism on a resort and farming island off the coast of South Australia. Like LAC, the first component of TOMM is an analysis of the context in which the planning must occur. Just as step 1 of LAC identifies the social values, issues and concerns, the first phase of TOMM identifies the community values, as well as the policy and planning directives of the various stakeholders. TOMM's contextual analysis also includes examination of the island's tourism products and the trends and opportunities 
  for the tourism market, much as step 2 of LAC maps out recreational opportunities. While LAC emphasizes the quality of the environment and visitor experience, TOMM places more emphasis on the sustainability of the tourism industry. Toward that end, TOMM goes on to identify and inventory potentially optimal conditions for tourism to occur (economic, market, environmental, experiential, and socio-cultural). TOMM, like LAC was designed to meld the technical expertise of industry and government with community and conservation group knowledge. 



  Davis, D., and C. Tisdell.  1995.  Recreational scuba-diving and carrying capacity in 
              marine protected areas.  Ocean and Coastal Management 26(1):19-40. 

  Davis, D., and C. Tisdell.  1996.  Economic Management of Recreational Scuba Diving 
   and the Environment.  Journal of Environmental Management 48:229-248. 

  Dixon, J. A., L. F. Scura, and T. van't Hof.  1993.  Meeting Ecological and Economic 
   Goals:  Marine Parks in the Caribbean.  Ambio 22(2-3):117-125. 

  Hawkins, J. P., and C. M. Roberts.  1992.  Effects of recreational SCUBA diving on fore- 
   reef slope communities of coral reefs.  Biological Conservation 62:171-178. 

  Hawkins, J. P., and C. M. Roberts.  1993.  Effects of recreational scuba diving on coral 
   reefs:  trampling on reef-flat communities.  Journal of Applied Ecology 30:25-30. 

  Karl Fellenius, Masters Candidate 
  School of Resource & Environmental Management 
  8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University 
  Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, http://www.rem.sfu.ca 
  karlf at sfu.ca  ph & fax (604)464-9140  cell (604)377-7597 

  -Tourism for the Community Coastal Zone: Official Community 
    Plans in the Canadian Georgia Basin 

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