Diver Tourism

Dricot-Fellenius karlf at sfu.ca
Tue Jun 26 20:56:18 EDT 2001

> I'm running a research project looking at the potential effects of an =
> increase in diver tourism in the Turks and Caicos Islands, based mainly =
> around methods for establishing the carrying capacity of the reefs here. =
> Does anyone know of any papers / web-sites / journals that would be =
> useful?
> Iain Ellis,
> Marine Policy Lecturer,
> Center for Marine Resource Studies,
> PO Box 007, South Caicos


Here are a few papers and websites. You may want to check out the broader
literature on carrying capacity in tourism as well. The diving papers have not
really addressed the changing view of carrying capacity. For a number of
years, carrying capacity has been viewed as a management philosophy rather
than the application of a number as in the past. Several methods are more
common, such as LAC (limits of acceptable change) and TOMM (tourism
optimization management model). see
http://www.forestry.umt.edu/personnel/faculty/borrie/planning.html (excerpt

Essentially, carrying capacity focuses attention on the question, "How many is
too many?" when the question confronting managers is, "What are the
appropriate or acceptable conditions for visitation and how do we achieve
them?" An example of a planning system that builds upon the framework of LAC
is the Tourism Optimization management Model (TOMM) developed in Australia.
TOMM is a management approach designed to monitor and manage tourism on a
resort and farming island off the coast of South Australia. Like LAC, the
first component of TOMM is an analysis of the context in which the planning
must occur. Just as step 1 of LAC identifies the social values, issues and
concerns, the first phase of TOMM identifies the community values, as well as
the policy and planning directives of the various stakeholders. TOMM’s
contextual analysis also includes examination of the island’s tourism products
and the trends and opportunities
for the tourism market, much as step 2 of LAC maps out recreational
opportunities. While LAC emphasizes the quality of the environment and visitor
experience, TOMM places more emphasis on the sustainability of the tourism
industry. Toward that end, TOMM goes on to identify and inventory potentially
optimal conditions for tourism to occur (economic, market, environmental,
experiential, and socio-cultural). TOMM, like LAC was designed to meld the
technical expertise of industry and government with community and conservation
group knowledge.



Davis, D., and C. Tisdell.  1995.  Recreational scuba-diving and carrying
capacity in
            marine protected areas.  Ocean and Coastal Management 26(1):19-40.

Davis, D., and C. Tisdell.  1996.  Economic Management of Recreational Scuba
 and the Environment.  Journal of Environmental Management 48:229-248.

Dixon, J. A., L. F. Scura, and T. van’t Hof.  1993.  Meeting Ecological and
 Goals:  Marine Parks in the Caribbean.  Ambio 22(2-3):117-125.

Hawkins, J. P., and C. M. Roberts.  1992.  Effects of recreational SCUBA
diving on fore-
 reef slope communities of coral reefs.  Biological Conservation 62:171-178.

Hawkins, J. P., and C. M. Roberts.  1993.  Effects of recreational scuba
diving on coral
 reefs:  trampling on reef-flat communities.  Journal of Applied Ecology

Karl Fellenius, Masters Candidate
School of Resource & Environmental Management
8888 University Drive, Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, http://www.rem.sfu.ca
karlf at sfu.ca  ph & fax (604)464-9140  cell (604)377-7597

-Tourism for the Community Coastal Zone: Official Community
  Plans in the Canadian Georgia Basin

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