[Coral-List] White-spined Diadema antillarum (Esther Peters)

Rex Chip Baumberger RBaumberger at HBOI.edu
Mon May 19 13:50:01 EDT 2008

I recall seeing the occasional white-spined D. antillarum during the past 4 years of reef monitoring off of south Florida. With that in mind from recent posts here, I was diving off of Jupiter, Fl 5-15-08 at 65-70' on Jupiter Ledge, and I saw a white spined Diadema.  However, as I got closer I noticed it was about 60% white spined and the rest normal black spines.  I wonder if anyone has noticed this in with the white-spined variety.  I have the GPS for it if anyone is interested, the site is locally known as "Scarface".

Rex "Chip" Baumberger
Biological Scientist, FAU
Marine Nutrient Dynamics Dept.
Marine Science Division
Harbor Branch Oceanographic Inst.
5600 US1 North
Fort Pierce, FL 34946
772-465-2400 x398

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Today's Topics:

   1. Re: White-spined Diadema antillarum (Esther Peters)
   2. Reef Restoration (Lee Goldman)
   3. Re: Coral Reef Restoration (David Fisk)
   4. photoshop trick for sat imagery (Dean Jacobson)
   5. Re: Coral restoration (Medio, David)


Message: 1
Date: Sun, 18 May 2008 12:28:58 -0400
From: Esther Peters <esther.peters at verizon.net>
Subject: Re: [Coral-List] White-spined Diadema antillarum
To: Gordon Hendler <hendler at nhm.org>
Cc: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
Message-ID: <4830594A.4010304 at verizon.net>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1; format=flowed

I recall seeing large white-spined /Diadema antillarum/ in shallow water 
at The Indians, rock outcroppings in the British Virgin Islands.  I was 
pregnant then, so could only snorkel, in 1988.  I remember thinking they 
must not have been affected by the mass motality because they were so 
large.  They might have been able to stay in the shade of the outcroppings.

If one does a Google Scholar search on these key words "sea urchin 
melanin epidermis" one finds all kinds of interesting papers on and 
references to melanin production in the epidermis and effects of light 
and diet on pigmentation in these animals.  But more studies are needed!

Esther Peters, Ph.D.
George Mason University

Gordon Hendler wrote:
> According to Moore (1966:81) large Diadema antillarum with some or 
> many
> white or gray spines "...are found in darker and more turbid conditions and 
> frequently in caves. In my experience, they seem to be more common in deep 
> water around Caribbean reefs than at shallow depths. The spines of 
> juveniles are always banded with black and white. Individuals change color 
> in response to the intensity of illumination. Animals that are black during 
> the day pale at night.
> Hendler et al. 1995. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, and Allies. Echinoderms of 
> Florida and the Caribbean. Smithsonian Institution Press. 390 pp.
> Moore, H.B. Ecology of echinoids. In: Physiology of Echinodermata, ed. R.A. 
> Boolootian, 73-85. John-Wiley Interscience. N.Y.
> ********************************************
> Gordon Hendler, Ph.D.
> Curator of Echinoderms
> Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
> 900 Exposition Boulevard
> Los Angeles, California 90007 U.S.A.
> Voice:  213 763 3526
> Fax:    213 746 2999
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Message: 2
Date: Sun, 18 May 2008 10:43:14 -0700 (PDT)
From: Lee Goldman <coralfarmguam at yahoo.com>
Subject: [Coral-List] Reef Restoration
To: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
Message-ID: <86461.29273.qm at web33206.mail.mud.yahoo.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1

Hi List,
  The discussion on reef restoration is another example of a great topic of interest for this list. My concern, however, is that it is reaching an audience that is not necessarily the right audience. Todd, your website (and your CNN interview) is filled with success stories in which you talk about positive reef restoration. In your postings here, you seem to understand that reefs cannot be restored to their original glory. I agree that something must be done, even if we can't make them what they were. BUT to the developers and polluters who ultimately cause need for this work, the message may be that we are successful in restoring reefs. Thus mitigating 'restoration' in exchange for development appears to be a commonplace and accepted. So the dilema, to me, is that as we get better  (or think we get better) at 'restoration' developers use that as a means to mitigate potential damage...and all along we agree, at least here in this like-minded and for lack of a better term,  'in-crowd' list-serve, that it really isn't as successful as we promote it to be to the general public (the audience that really needs to be a part of this discussion). If this is the theme of Don's postings, then I have to agree with him as well. Solutions to this issue? Not that I can find. We can't do nothing yet anything that is done is seen as a mitigating factor which falls well short of the ultimate goal. 
  Lee Goldman
  Coral Farm Guam
  PO Box 6682
  Tamuning, Guam 96931
  Coralfarmguam at yahoo.com



Message: 3
Date: Sun, 18 May 2008 23:09:12 +0200
From: "David Fisk" <davefisk at gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [Coral-List] Coral Reef Restoration
To: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
Cc: MedioD at halcrow.com
	<1dd51780805181409p2a8c963fx65cd87f283c93351 at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=WINDOWS-1252

The pertinent point I think from David Medio's comments is that it is wrong to think that reef restoration can be used as an excuse to allow some developments to proceed - at all, or in a certain proposed manner. The argument that doing something (restoration) is better than doing nothing, usually does not stack up when it is used as an argument to accept a proposed development strategy. With the required sensitivity and developmental controls, some developments may result in minimal impacts, but the cost will usually be too prohibitive to be really effective for most developments.

The true 'point of practicality' here is that restoration should not be be used as that offset, nor should any 'smart' engineering per se, as it's too easy to let serious impacts to go ahead when the current knowledge base clearly shows such 'offsets' will not deliver what it is promised. In previous posts I have said sufficient re the use of the same technologies to reverse larger scale disturbances including predicted climate change effects, but I still hear of proposals claiming to do just that. For example, a publicly available UN document dated April 2008 demonstrates how serious this situation has progressed, and that I am not making idle arguments. Here is a recent UN link to a UNDESA document called "Partnerships for Sustainable Develoment" which may very well lead to substantial funding for certain restoration projects: http://webapps01.un.org/dsd/partnerships/public/partnerships/1894.html

In this web page the following statement is included (and note some of the extreme statements) : "SIDS (Small Island Developing States) fisheries, tourism industries, and protection from rising sea levels, increased tropical storm frequency and intensity are heavily dependent on healthy coral reefs?and these are the most climatically threatened of all ecosystems, due to global warming. SIDS have already lost most of their corals, and the rest are imminently endangered by rising global temperatures, and most daunting of all, low-lying island nations are threatened with extinction by submergence from global sea level rise."

Further on under the heading: Additional Relevant Information - New Sustainable Development for SIDS - CORAL REEF AND FISHERIES HABITAT RESTORATION "New technology increases the growth rates of corals several times faster than normal, greatly increases survival of corals under conditions of extreme high temperature stress, and greatly increases the buildup of fish and shellfish populations. This allows reefs to be kept alive where they would die, and new reefs and fisheries habitat to be grown in a few years in places where they cannot recover naturally. Because reef fisheries are collapsing due to habitat destruction, control of fishing activities cannot restore fisheries without large-scale habitat restoration. This restoration process is powered using tidal, solar, and wind energy. "

As this information is in the public domain it is imperative that the coral reef community is adequately informed of this as a means of placing this discussion in a contemporary framework. Again, I apologize if any individual is compromised by pointing out this trend - I am just the messenger, and am not targeting anyone in particular. But I think it is time that the wider coral reef community step up and insist on proper scientific review and do not let commercial interests within the scientific community drive this assessment of the allocation of critical development funding for SIDS in particular.

David Fisk


Message: 4
Date: Mon, 19 May 2008 00:27:51 -0700 (PDT)
From: Dean Jacobson <atolldino at yahoo.com>
Subject: [Coral-List] photoshop trick for sat imagery
To: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
Cc: Don Hess <cmihess at gmail.com>
Message-ID: <287849.35766.qm at web31803.mail.mud.yahoo.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii

Hi listers:

Today I "discovered" a useful way to filter satellite images using Photoshop to reveals relatively deep reefs (below 15 meters).  (I am fortunate to have access to 0.6 m Majuro atoll data for ArcMap). I am using Photoshop 6.

Under "images", choose selective color, choose blue, then minimize the black slider.  Then choose black, and maximize black slider.  Another iteration may be needed.  Then, increase contrast and brightness.  To avoid blowing out the shallows and land, first save an extra image layer, make your adjustments, and then selectively erase the upper adjustment layer so the original pixels show through.

The results were pretty remarkable; it was like having "X-ray vision"... well-defined deep reefs magically appeared out of the monotonous dark blue lagoon water.  This will work only if the stat image was taken an a calm day; a wave chop seems to obscure the deep features.

I discovered this just in time for my coral monitoring season! I can send some example jpgs upon request.

Dean Jacobson, PhD
College of the Marshall Islands



Message: 5
Date: Mon, 19 May 2008 09:17:42 +0100
From: "Medio, David" <MedioD at halcrow.com>
Subject: Re: [Coral-List] Coral restoration
To: "Douglas Fenner" <dfenner at blueskynet.as>
Cc: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
	<A87990669172924FADCAABF1721CB6EC0878E991 at LOND-MX-01.halcrow.com>
Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="us-ascii"


apologies! It is indeed the Arabian Gulf (Persian to some) I am referring to!


Dr David Medio
Principal Environmental Scientist
Halcrow Group Ltd, Arndale Centre, Otley Rd, Headingley, Leeds, LS6 2UL, UK
tel: switchboard +44 (0)113 2208220, direct line: +44 (0)113 220 8253,
mobile: +44 (0)773 919 0968
fax: +44 (0)113 274 2924   email: mediod at halcrow.com
www.halcrow.com ________________________________________________________________________

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-----Original Message-----
From: Douglas Fenner [mailto:dfenner at blueskynet.as] 
Sent: 18 May 2008 00:18
To: Medio, David
Subject: Re: [Coral-List] Coral restoration

    Are you speaking of the Arbian/Persian Gulf?  I know its common to refer to it as the Gulf in that area.  The coral-list has many readers that are closer to the Gulf of Mexico, some near the Gulf of California, and so on. 
Might be good to specify so no one is left wondering.  Thanks!  -Doug

----- Original Message -----
From: "Medio, David" <MedioD at halcrow.com>
To: <coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov>
Sent: Friday, May 16, 2008 2:13 AM
Subject: [Coral-List] Coral restoration

>I am involved in a wide range of medium to very large coastal
>some of which a priori are known to damage long established reefs in
>Gulf. Whereas some of the recent artificial reef applications may well
>had positive results, I am as rule very sceptical on the use of and
>proliferaion as well as the political clout afforded artificial reef 
> Firstly, can we really recreate a reef (as opposed to relocating
> bits of a reef) in its complexity, function and extent?
> Secondly, using man made reefs, if pushed to the limit, as is the case
> many coastal and offshore developments in the Gulf, will amount
> to giving a green light to using such as a tool to offset large levels
> multi-layered damage to the marine environment, i.e. more than just
> coral habitats.
> Reefs in the Gulf are increasingly being described as far more
> and pristine and species rich than previuosly thought whilst at the
> coming under the greatest level of pressure ever experienced in the
> region.
> The answer for their conservation is cleverly designed engineering,
> and well implemented mitigation measures and environmental management
> plans, improved environmental educational and awareness and improved 
> regulatory frameworks.
> Dr David Medio
> Principal Environmental Scientist
> Halcrow Group Ltd, Arndale Centre, Otley Rd, Headingley, Leeds, LS6
> UK
> tel: switchboard +44 (0)113 2208220, direct line: +44 (0)113 220 8253,

> mobile: +44 (0)773 919 0968
> fax: +44 (0)113 274 2924   email: mediod at halcrow.com 
> www.halcrow.com
> Halcrow   Sustaining and improving the quality of people's lives
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