[Coral-List] bleaching and acidification

Delbeek, Charles cdelbeek at calacademy.org
Thu Feb 19 11:59:08 EST 2009

The source of saltwater at the Waikiki Aquarium is an 80ft deep saltwater
well. This water is high in dissolved nitrogen and CO2 so is heavily aerated
in an adjacent aeration chamber before it is used. The pH is around 7.8 on
exit from the aeration well, and is used in all their live coral exhibits and
the corals grow extremely well. Dr. Marlin Atkinson at U of Hawaii has
published a few papers on this system in the 1990s and Dr. Bruce Carlson also
published a paper in the late 90's on the growth rate of the coral in this
water. Perhaps they can chime in with the references which I do not have
handy at the moment. 

I have always found it puzzling why more researchers have not investigated
the corals and giant clams that have been grown in this water at this
facility for over 30 years, since it seems to present the possible future
situation of our ocean water.


J. Charles Delbeek, M.Sc.
Senior Aquatic Biologist, Steinhart Aquarium
California Academy of Sciences
55 Music Concourse Dr.
San Francisco CA 94118

phone (415) 379-5303
fax (415) 379-5304
cdelbeek at calacademy.org

-----Original Message-----
From: coral-list-bounces at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
[mailto:coral-list-bounces at coral.aoml.noaa.gov] On Behalf Of Tim Wijgerde
Sent: Wednesday, February 18, 2009 11:00 AM
To: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
Subject: Re: [Coral-List] bleaching and acidification

<style type="text/css">
Dear all,

why not put corals in 5 small chambers at pH levels of 7,4;7,6;7,8 and 8.2
and measure calcification. Next, subject the same corals to these values
for 3 months or more and see how they grow. Maybe calcification rates are
more or less equal in all conditions (ample HCO3-) but net accretion
correlates negatively with lower pH levels (decreased arag sat, so more
dissolution). I noticed some gaps about this in the literature. Mix this
with different temperatures in a larger setup and the data would be very
interesting. Maybe combine this with some microsensor measurements to
correlate calicoblastic pH levels with decreased ambient pH (which is
usually around pH 9 during the day at ambient pH 8.2) and we could
distinguish between gross accretion and dissolution. It will probably cost
significantly more ATP (energy) to allow the Ca2+/proton pumps to keep
high calicoblastic fluid pH levels at low ambient pH.
 p.s. Dr. Muir, you will
find arag stat maps in this paper for example by Prof. Hoegh-Guldberg;
DOI: 10.1126/science.1152509
 Science 318, 1737 (2007);
Hoegh-Guldberg, et al.

Op Wo, 18 februari, 2009 18:00, schreef
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> Today's Topics:
>    1. Re: bleaching and
acidification (Paul Muir)
>    2. CPCe V3.6 is available (Kevin
>    3. CPCe V3.6 is available (Kevin Kohler)
4. Black cyanobacterisponge, Terpios hishinota,	outbreak in
 coral reefs and geographic information needed (Allen Chen)
5. post doc position (St?phanie Reynaud (CSM))
> Message: 1
> Date: Tue, 17 Feb 2009 10:05:01
> From: "Paul Muir"
<paul.muir at qm.qld.gov.au>
> Subject: Re: [Coral-List]
bleaching and acidification
> To: "coral-list
coral-list" <coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov>
	<BB9E9CCBC5617F4B9FB988E8553C377D238BC1 at mtqfp02.mtq.qm.qld.gov.au>
> Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="US-ASCII"

> Are there maps of aragonite saturation/ carbonate
equilibrium for ocean
> areas? On a trip to the Indian Ocean in
2005 we were quite struck by
> differences in apparent growth
rates of Acroporas after the '98
> bleaching event at different
locations. In the Maldives growth after
> mass mortality was
apparently rapid  (ie new colonies 2- 3m diameter)
> while at a
similar latitude in the Seychelles the  maximum colony size
> of 
Acroporas was approx 25 cm. We did wonder if these apparent
differences in growth rates were partly due to differences in aragonite
> saturation since both locations appeared quite similar in terms of
> oceanic reefs with minimal human impact.
> Dr. Paul Muir
> Museum of Tropical
> 78-104 Flinders St,
> Townsville QLD 4810
> ph. 07 47 260 642  fax. 07 47 212 093  mob. 0407 117
> * if no reply or problems sending try
paularwen at gmail.com
-----Original Message-----
> From:
coral-list-bounces at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
[mailto:coral-list-bounces at coral.aoml.noaa.gov] On Behalf Of Thomas
> Goreau
> Sent: Tuesday, 17 February 2009 3:11 AM
To: Chris Langdon
> Cc: coral-list coral-list
> Subject:
[Coral-List] bleaching and acidification
> Dear
> I fully agree with what you say below based on
lab studies. The Elat
> field data of Silverman et al. clearly
showing less net calcium
> carbonate accumulation when waters have
higher pCO2 makes this even
> clearer.
However this small reduction must be contrasted with the fact that
> bleached corals completely stop growing (Goreau & Macfarlane)
> reproducing (Szmant-Froelich) for at least one year, and it
takes a
> couple years to fully recover even if they survive and
high temperatures
> don't ever come back.......
> Best wishes,
> Tom
> Thomas J. Goreau,
> President, Global Coral Reef Alliance
> Coordinator,
United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development
> Partnership
in New Technologies for Small Island Developing States
> 37
Pleasant Street, Cambridge MA 02139
> 617-864-4226
goreau at bestweb.net
> http://www.globalcoral.org
> Date: Sun, 15 Feb 2009 17:49:56 -0500 (EST)
> From:
"Chris Langdon" <clangdon at rsmas.miami.edu>
Subject: [Coral-List] Bleaching vs acidification
> To:
coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
> Message-ID:
	<2975. at webmail.rsmas.miami.edu>
> Content-Type: text/plain;charset=iso-8859-1
> It
is very clear that bleaching events have resulted in significant loss
> of live coral cover around the globe.  We know that within the
> environmentally probable range of pH that coral mortality does
> result.
> However, acidification may play an
important role in the amount of
> recovery that is possible
between bleaching events which have been
> occurring with a
frequency of 3-7 years since 1982. The average
> saturation state
of the tropical ocean has dropped from a pre-industrial
> value
> 4.6
> to a present day value of 3.9-4.0.  This is
sufficient to have caused on
> average a 17% decrease in
calcification for the twelve or so species
> that have been
studied in the lab.  In a world where the balance between
production and loss of carbonate on many reefs is thought to be close
> and where the replacement rate of new coral colonies on many reefs
> not keeping up with the rate of mortality a 17% reduction in
fitness may
> be significant.  While acidification does not kill
corals it does result
> in slower development of coral larvae into
juvenile colonies (Albright
> et al.
> 2008) and slower
development of juvenile colonies to sexual maturity.
> While
bleaching is a very important threat I don't we know enough at
this time to ignore the possibility that acidification has already
> played a role in the lack of recovery that we are seeing on many

> Chris Langdon
> Assoc. Professor
> Uni. of Miami
> 4600 Rickenbacker Cswy
> Miami,FL
> Ph: 305-421-4614
> Fax: 305-421-4239
> Coral-List
mailing list
> Coral-List at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
> ------------------------------
Message: 2
> Date: Tue, 17 Feb 2009 12:15:02 -0500
> From:
Kevin Kohler <kevin at nova.edu>
> Subject: [Coral-List] CPCe
V3.6 is available
> To: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
Message-ID: < at pop.nova.edu>
> Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

> ------------------------------

> Message: 3
> Date: Tue, 17 Feb 2009 13:09:35 -0500
> From: Kevin Kohler <kevin at nova.edu>
> Subject:
[Coral-List] CPCe V3.6 is available
> To:
coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
> Message-ID:
< at pop.nova.edu>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=us-ascii; format=flowed
> Dear Coral Lister,
> The National Coral Reef
Institute (NCRI) of Nova Southeastern University
> is
pleased to announce the availability of Version 3.6 of CPCe (Coral
> Count with Excel extensions). CPCe is a Windows-based
program that
> provides
> for the determination of coral
cover and diversity using transect
> photographs and the random
point count method. It can also perform image
> calibration and
area analysis.
> Improvements in V3.6 include:
> Two additional Excel analysis sheets
> Ability
to assemble accumulated lengths in area analysis
> Excel files
have greater Office 2007 compatibility
> File sequencer allows
bulk image renaming
> User option for expanding small images
> Help file is now Vista compatible
> Reference images for
supplied data codes
> CPCe is provided by NCRI free of
charge for interested researchers. More
> information is available
at http://www.nova.edu/ocean/cpce/
> ----------------------------------------------------
> Kevin E. Kohler <kevin at nova.edu>
> Director of
Computing Services
> National Coral Reef Institute
> Nova Southeastern University Oceanographic
Center (www.nova.edu/ocean)
> 8000 North Ocean Drive Dania Beach,
Florida 33004
> Ph: 954.262.3641 Fax: 954.262.4158
> ------------------------------
> Message: 4
> Date: Wed, 18 Feb 2009 13:49:30 +0800
> From: Allen Chen <cac at gate.sinica.edu.tw>
> Subject:
[Coral-List] Black cyanobacterisponge, Terpios hishinota,
	outbreak in coral reefs and geographic information needed
> To:
coral-list coral-list <coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov>
<14093016-B712-4969-9BED-1A3001931161 at gate.sinica.edu.tw>
Content-Type: text/plain;	charset=US-ASCII;	delsp=yes;
> Dear Listers,
> I am looking for the
new information, particularly in the Pacific
> Islands and other
Indo-Pacific region, about the outbreak of black
cyanobacterisponge, Terpios hishinota. This sponge overgrows hard
> corals and any hard substrate when it goes. Outbreak of Teripos
> observed in Guam at early 1970s, and in Okinawa at mid
1980s. Until
> now, some of the coral reef areas are still covered
by black turf-
> like sponge for such long time, according to the
status report in 2004.
> In Taiwan, we have observed
the outbreak in the islands at the east
> coast since 2006. for
the preliminary information, please refer to
> this paper.
> "The Black Disease of Reef-Building Corals at Green
Island, Taiwan -
> Outbreak of a Cyanobacteriosponge, Terpios
hoshinota (Suberitidae;
> Hadromerida). Zoological Studies 46(4):
520 (http://
> zoolstud.sinica.edu.tw/464.htm)"
> We are organising an integrative project to study this sponge
> and the mechanism in killing corals. We would like to
get more
> information, particularly those islands or reefs that
> hishinota have been observed but not been reported by
> documentation. One of the research topic is to figure out
the sexual
> and asexual sources and where does the terpios in
Taiwan come from
> and go using population genetic approaches. So,
any information
> related to this cyanobacterisponge will be
grateful appreciated.
> Cheers, Allen
> Allen
Chen, PhD
> Associate Research Fellow
> ------------------------------
> Message: 5
> Date: Wed, 18 Feb 2009 16:14:34
> From: "St?phanie Reynaud (CSM)"
	<sreynaud at centrescientifique.mc>
> Subject: [Coral-List]
post doc position
> To: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
	<A681EEFB-7B8F-4FAB-9F67-397552B2DACB at centrescientifique.mc>
> Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1; format=flowed;
> Dear colleagues,
> I
would like to draw your attention to a postdoctoral research
fellowship opportunity at the Centre Scientifique de Monaco directed
> by Prof. Denis Allemand (CSM; http://www.centrescientifique.mc).
> You will join the team of Ecophysiology to study deep
sea corals. The
> candidate will focus his (her) study on growth
rates and nutrition
> under different environmental conditions.
> This study will be made in collaboration with Covadonga Orejas and
> team of the CSIC in Barcelona.
Selection criteria include:
> * A PhD in relevant disciplines,
> * An excellent publication record for stage of career,
> *
the knowledge of coral/deep coral biology or food web interactions and
> * Capacity to bring fresh approaches to this study that will
> complement existing areas of strength in the Scientific Centre.
> The position will be available in June 2009. Appointment
will be
> through May-June 2010 in the first instance.
Applications will be
> accepted until end of fMarch 2009.
> Enquiries to:
> Dr. C. Pag?s
(ferrier at centrescientifique.mc) or Prof. Denis Allemand
(allemand at centrescientifique.mc
> )
> To apply,
please forward a CV, email addresses of 3 potential
> referees,
and a 1-2 pages description of a research project.

> Coral-List
mailing list
> Coral-List at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
> End of Coral-List Digest, Vol 6, Issue 20

Wijgerde, M.Sc.
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