[Coral-List] Over fishing contributing to ocean acidification?
eshinn at marine.usf.edu
Mon Jan 19 10:48:36 EST 2009
An interesting article about an article published in Science. Gene
Fish an ally against climate change
* New Scientist 13:02 16 January 2009 by Catherine Brahic
An unlikely ally may have been found in the fight against the effects
of climate change. Fish excretions seem to play a key role in
maintaining the ocean's delicate pH balance, says a study that also
reveals that there are 2 billion tonnes of fish in the world's oceans.
Bony fish excrete lumps of calcium carbonate, known as "gut rocks"
which are thought to dissolve in the upper layers of the ocean. A
team led by Rod Wilson of the University of Exeter in the UK has now
shown that the sheer amount of gut rocks produced plays a key role in
buffering the carbon dioxide that acidifies seawater.
"This study really is the first glimpse of the huge impact fish have
on our carbon cycle - and why we need them in the ocean," says
Wilson's colleague Villy Christensen of the University of British
Columbia in Canada.
While marine biologists have known for some time that fish produce
gut rocks, until now no-one had estimated just how much calcium
carbonate is spewed out into the ocean in this way.
It was widely believed that most marine carbonate is provided by the
external skeletons of marine plankton. These microscopic organisms
are likely to be hard hit as climate change increases the acidity of
the oceans and their skeletons literally dissolve away.
The new study reveals that fish play an important role in stopping
this from happening.
ferent models to estimate the amount of fish biomass that is in the
global oceans, and its distribution.
By drinking salt water, fish ingest a lot of calcium, and they
excrete more or less calcium carbonate depending on their size and
the temperature of the water. "For a given total mass of fish,
smaller fish produce more than bigger fish, and fish at higher
temperatures produce more than fish at lower temperatures," explains
The team then used data on how much carbonate fish produce on average
to calculate how much the fish biomass represented in their computer
models are likely to excrete.
This revealed that between 3% and 15% of all the calcium carbonate
produced in the oceans comes from fish. Wilson says this is a
conservative estimate - he and his team think the real figure could
be three times higher.
"I expect it will be a big surprise to most of the ocean scientists
who study the ocean carbon cycle," says Wilson. "Apart from a handful
of fish biologists around the world, the scientific community were
previously unaware that fish produce of any of this chalky mineral,
let alone enough to be significant on a global scale."
Eric Achterberg of the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton,
UK, says the study offers an insight into an underrepresented marine
process. "Whether the fish carbonate is really an important
contribution to the mid-water alkalinity is not certain yet and forms
an excellent topic of research," he says.
Wilson agrees that it is not yet certain whether the gut rocks do
indeed dissolve in the upper layers of the ocean. Their chemical
structure suggests that they are very soluble in seawater and should
readily dissolve. But if future studies show this does not happen,
this will mean the gut rocks sink to the bottom of the ocean without
dissolving and buffering the oceans.
Because fish carbonate production goes up with temperature, fish are
likely to produce more carbonate - and be more effective buffers of
ocean acidity - as temperatures increase through global warming.
That's the good news. The bad news is that overfishing may have an
additional downside: in addition to depleting food stocks, it could
also deplete the precious carbonate buffer.
Because of the complexity of ocean chemistry, "we cannot really say
much with any confidence about how overfishing might affect ocean
acidification says Wilson. "But we definitely need to study this more
to help make better predictions about these future changes."
"We must buck the current trend of clear-cutting of the oceans and
foster these unrecognised allies against climate change," says
Journal reference: Science (DOI: 10.1126/science.1157972)
No Rocks, No Water, No Ecosystem (EAS)
E. A. Shinn, Courtesy Professor
University of South Florida
Marine Science Center (room 204)
140 Seventh Avenue South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
<eshinn at marine.usf.edu>
Tel 727 553-1158----------------------------------
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