[Coral-List] COT in Red Sea and Gulf Area

Medio, David MedioD at halcrow.com
Tue Jan 20 12:06:30 EST 2009

Re Salinity as a limiting factor, COT explosions have been recorded in
Ras Mohammed (Northern Red Sea) in the past and as far as I can remember
salinity is high there too.

Could the constraints (in Qatar and other parts of the Gulf) not be more
linked to the yearly ranges in temperature and in some parts salinity as

Dr David Medio 
Associate Director, Environment 
Halcrow Group Ltd, Arndale Centre, Otley Rd, Headingley, Leeds, LS6 2UL,
tel: switchboard +44 (0)113 2208220, direct line: +44 (0)113 220 8253,
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fax: +44 (0)113 274 2924   email: mediod at halcrow.com

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Today's Topics:

   1. Re: SPPI Report (Tom Lo)
   2. Re: COTS observations, Leyte (Marga McElroy)
   3. Micornesia Challenge Communications Specialist Vacancy
      Announcement (Yimnang Golbuu)
   4. Re: COT current status (Fadlalla, Yusef H)
   5. Over fishing contributing to ocean acidification? (Gene Shinn)


Message: 1
Date: Mon, 19 Jan 2009 10:49:11 -0600
From: Tom Lo <tolope at gmail.com>
Subject: Re: [Coral-List] SPPI Report
To: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov,	Coral-List
	<coral-list at aoml.noaa.gov.aoml.noaa.gov>
	<b5c609e40901190849v275661e8n7609711788f37b2 at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

Hi listers.

I don't agree to call opponents in science to those who think different,
interpret in a different manner the same proofs we get. I think
that debating anxiusly with this people for our point of view to be
just makes wider the gap (which is not a favorable situation from a
political point of view, where political groups could go after the best
economic proposal). No one can be sure that the interpretation made from
resarch is the absolute truth (i.e. previous messages from Gene and
Lister's about a journalist's interpretations of Ove statements), and I
think this also applies for the GCC controversial situation. Every paper
publish or word-idea we give is our *bona fide* contribution to science
to society, but taking the risk that our contributions can eventually be

Tha actual atmospheric CO2 levels, the intensity and magnitude of
and meteorological events, the glacial melting by higher T?,... ; lead
us to
question about the future of nature and human kind. The issue is not
just to
keep asking about the cause-consequences and relation between this facts
(which always is gona be a controversial issue, even if there are a lot
scientific basis), but to look for what we could do about it to
adapt and mitigate this situation. If the GCC is a fact we must take
now, but if not, we could keep with our life style. The bottom line is
"maybe" we won't have a second chance to find an answer, so modifying
life style is the minor risk we could get. And this is mainly a


2009/1/17 RainbowWarriorsInternational <southern_caribbean at yahoo.com>

> Dear listers,
> I have read the SPPI report, and have some questions.
> Is this report the first one of its kind to venture this
> concept and this ridiculous notion that the planet keeps the ocean
> temperature fluctuating between 28 and 30 degrees, or plus or minus
one (1)
> degree the threshold temperature for corals?
> This other issue is even more ridiculous, this "symbiont shuffling
> hypothesis", and then the suggestions that climate change and sea
level rise
> are "beneficial" for coral growth.
> The most outrageous point however is the CO2 increase and increasing
> acidification of the oceans not harming corals.
> After reading the report I would to get a shortlist of articles and
> that refute all these allegations.
> An important question remains, for which audience was this report
> and to whom has it been distributed, and where has it been commented
on the
> media?
> In my organization we do not have marine biologists readily at our
> as full paid staff, so when the time comes that we must debunk bad
> as well, we depend on others.
> For practical purposes, has anyone ever bothered to make a listing and
> it updated on bad marine biology science as related to global warming
> climate change etc.?
> I am almost sure of the fact that our opponents have a fully updated
> reference list of climate change-alarmist literature and actors in
> field.
> It is important to know your opponent.
> Milton Ponson, President
> Rainbow Warriors Core Foundation
> (Rainbow Warriors International) Tel. +297 568 5908
> PO Box 1154, Oranjestad
> Aruba, Dutch Caribbean
> Email: southern_caribbean at yahoo.com Web Sites:
> http://www.southerncaribbean..org   http://www.rainbowwarriors.net
>  (Global)
> http://www.projectparadigm.info
> To unite humanity in a global society dedicated to a sustainable way
> life
> _______________________________________________
> Coral-List mailing list
> Coral-List at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
> http://coral.aoml.noaa.gov/mailman/listinfo/coral-list


Message: 2
Date: Mon, 19 Jan 2009 18:51:19 -0500
From: Marga McElroy <margamcel at hotmail.com>
Subject: Re: [Coral-List] COTS observations, Leyte
To: coral list coral list <coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov>
Message-ID: <COL117-W4067B3577CA7674F394B81B0D30 at phx.gbl>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="Windows-1252"

As a non-scientific observor, knowing nothing about the nutrient loading
in the area I have recently observed COTS while diving in southern Sogod
Bay, especially on the East side.  Perhaps the info will be of use to
someone knowledgeable enough to use it."Marga"Marguerite  K. McElroyU.S.
Peace Corps VolunteerCampaclan, Sibulan 6201Negros  OrientalPhilippines
Windows Live?: Keep your life in sync. 


Message: 3
Date: Tue, 20 Jan 2009 12:10:03 +0900
From: "Yimnang Golbuu" <ygolbuu at gmail.com>
Subject: [Coral-List] Micornesia Challenge Communications Specialist
	Vacancy	Announcement
To: "Coral List" <coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov>
Cc: "Charlene T. Mersai" <micronesiachallenge at gmail.com>
Message-ID: <8970F05E165342F2894CC29138CEE313 at YIM>
Content-Type: text/plain;	charset="iso-8859-1"

Micronesia Challenge


Job Vacancy Announcement


CLOSING DATE:   February 13, 2009 

TO APPLY:            Send cover letter and resume to Charlene Mersai at
micronesiachallenge at gmail.com



The Micronesia Challenge (MC) is a globally unique effort, and is
unprecedented in its collaborative regional approach to achieving
conservation goals. As such, the MC has the potential to attract both
international and national funding as well as fostering pride in island
residents as leaders in this unique conservation effort. To fully
maximize this potential however, a coordinated, strategic, and sustained
marketing strategy, which highlights local success stories at a regional
and national level, must be implemented. 


Social marketing and communication strategies are now recognized as
critical components to successful conservation efforts.  Ultimately,
conservation is about people. We do not manage resources; we manage how
people interact with these resources.  The question is no longer whether
to involve local communities in conservation, but how. 


While most jurisdictions have some level of a public participation plan,
and an outreach professional working on engaging local communities in
conservation, most have also noted "community support and participation"
as a challenge to their efforts.   These local professionals will become
essential in spreading the messages and goals of the Micronesia
Challenge to local stakeholders, and fostering public participation in
management actions towards achieving the MC goals. However, they need
support to further develop strong social marketing messages, and gain
skills to effectively foster environmental stewardship.  It is essential
to provide long term support to local coordinators as they carry out
public awareness strategies in their local jurisdictions. 


Finally, there is currently no mechanism for developing a regional
marketing approach that emphasizes the unique nature of the Challenge
and garners further financial and technical support both nationally and
internationally. It is unrealistic to assume that locally-based
coordinators can carry out regional MC communications. Their limited
time and technical resources must be prioritized for local initiatives.
A truly integrated and successful approach requires an individual with
highly developed technical marketing skills that can carry out public
opinion research, craft effective messages, and implement a sustained
and targeted campaign. 




Raising public awareness of environmental concerns and how to address
these concerns is a central component of any strategy to conserve
biodiversity and promote the sustainable use of natural resources.  The
Micronesia Challenge is a unique and unprecedented conservation
endeavor.  At the regional level, it requires a:  


  1.. specialized, effective, regional marketing campaign that conveys a
regional message, showcases the participating jurisdictions' successes,
and ultimately attracts foreign and/or national investment;
  2.. a reliable communications plan that coordinates regional events
and oversees the flow of information between jurisdictions and the
greater international community; and   
  3.. a system that provides technical support to the existing outreach
and education strategies of the local jurisdictions.  


The Micronesia Challenge Communications Specialist (MCCS) position will
assist the five Micronesia Challenge (MC) jurisdictions (The
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Federated States of
Micronesia, Guam, the Republic of Palau, and The Republic of the
Marshall Islands) through development of marketing materials and
technical assistance.  Specifically, the role of the MCCS will include
but not be limited to: 

?         Work with MC Coordinator, MC Communications Team and MC
Support team to further develop and implement a regional MC
Communications Plan, ensuring the MC is positioned appropriately at
important national, regional and international events as they arise.

?         Assist MC Coordinator to liaise with donors, the media and the
general public to elevate global recognition and support for the

?         Craft regional messages highlighting local success stories

?         Work with MC Champions (and Champions Coordinator) to support
implementation of communications plan

?         Provide support and training for local coordinators as

?         Serve as Web administrator of a regional Web site that will
link to existing local web-based information and house communication

?         Bring expertise and training to local jurisdictions to support
jurisdictional efforts

?         Coordinate regional events (e.g. MC Festival/Meeting,

?         Compile regional reports highlighting local efforts

?         Disseminate branding tools and ensure consistency of brand in
all MC Communications materials





?         Bachelor's degree in English, Journalism, Social marketing or
related field and at least 3 years related experience or equivalent

?         Excellent written and oral communication skills.

?         Good interpersonal skills, including the ability to
effectively pitch news/feature stories and work with media on deadline.

?         Sound judgment, professionalism and, especially, discretion
while serving as the media spokesperson for the Micronesia Challenge.

?         Demonstrated experience in MS Office, Word, and Excel.  May
require database management skills with ability to produce reports.
Ability to use advanced computer functions including navigating the
Internet.  Ability to manipulate, analyse and interpret data.

?         Ability to organize time and manage diverse activities.  Meet

?         Must be able to present ideas and concepts clearly and in a
culturally considerate context and to work effectively within the region
other MC partners.  

?         Preference given to candidates from or with experience in
Micronesia or other Pacific Islands.  

Communications/Interpersonal Contacts:

?         Communication and presentation skills; ability to persuasively
convey the mission of MC to diverse groups including donors, the public
and others.

?         Ability to communicate and coordinate with multiple
stakeholders (e.g. local outreach focal points, MC Coordinator, donors,
the public, donors, and others) over long distances. 

?         Ability to work closely with a team of people to develop and
implement project plans 

?         Solicit MC support through clear written communications,
including proposal writing and other written materials.

Problem Solving/Decision-Making Responsibility:

?         Coordinate multiple projects with several variables, set
realistic deadlines, and manage a timeline.

?         Interpret guidelines and analyse factual information to adapt
or modify processes in response to changing circumstances.

?         Duties may require non-routine analysis, research and

?         Work independently without requiring detailed management
review of general work.

?         Financial responsibility may include working within a budget
to complete projects, negotiating and contracting with vendors,
assisting with budget development, and meeting fundraising targets.

Working Conditions/Physical Effort:

?         Ability to adapt to dynamic working schedules and
environments, including regional travel 

?         Ability to work under stress during peak workload periods.



  a.. The MCCS will be supervised by the MC Regional Coordinator,
Charlene Mersai, based in Palau.
  b.. Work hours will vary according to task being performed but will
average 40 hours per week.
  c.. Regional travel may be required to perform certain tasks.  
  d.. MC Regional Office and host partner organization will provide
office space, computer, phone, and administrative support.  
  e.. The period of performance for this contract is 1 year from the
date of award.  

Location TBD- finding the right candidate with the right skills is the
highest priority




  a.. $35,000 to $40,000 per annum 








Message: 4
Date: Mon, 19 Jan 2009 13:28:57 +0300
From: "Fadlalla, Yusef H" <yusef.fadlalla at aramco.com>
Subject: Re: [Coral-List] COT current status
To: "dr_iamacdonald at yahoo.co.uk" <dr_iamacdonald at yahoo.co.uk>,
	"Coral-List at coral.aoml.noaa.gov"
<Coral-List at coral.aoml.noaa.gov>,
	"info at crcreef.com" <info at crcreef.com>,	Karl & Michele
	<michka at fellenius.net>
	<64539150B8671E4B8C14A59C154617E3070B5AF1E2 at EMAILC.aramco.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"


We have no record of COT sighting from Saudi Arabian reefs in the ROPME
Sea Area.  Are you suggesting that the COT was sighted in Qatar?

Yusef Fadlalla

-----Original Message-----
From: coral-list-bounces at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
[mailto:coral-list-bounces at coral.aoml.noaa.gov] On Behalf Of Iain
Sent: Sunday, January 18, 2009 9:56 AM
To: Coral-List at coral.aoml.noaa.gov; info at crcreef.com; Karl & Michele
Subject: Re: [Coral-List] COT current status

Karl and list,

I have a different question on COT to those posed by Karl and Michele
stimulated by a recent presentation on local (Qatar) threats to coral
reefs. COT was one of the threats. However, i was under the impression
that COT did not exist this far into the ROPME Sea Area since the
salinity (typically between 39-42) was to high for junvenile survival.
Have i been misinformed about juvenile survival? If the COT do not exist
here (which is true as far as i know) i do not want people to mis-direct
their efforts in reef conservation on a red herring (pardon the pun).

How far do COT expand into the area? If you work in Iran/UAE (or any
other country in the neighbourhood) let me know the furthest extent of a
sighting please.


Iain Macd.

--- On Fri, 16/1/09, Karl & Michele <michka at fellenius.net> wrote:

From: Karl & Michele <michka at fellenius.net>
Subject: [Coral-List] COT current status
To: Coral-List at coral.aoml.noaa.gov, info at crcreef.com
Date: Friday, 16 January, 2009, 2:23 AM

Dear coral list and CRC,

I have been looking at the 2003 CRC info doc on crown of thorns at
www.reef.crc.org.au/publications/brochures/COTS_web_Nov2003.pdf as well
as a
few other web publications.

I do environmental assessments in Vanuatu and currently there is a COT
outbreak on Efate. I am seeking fairly specific references to published
works on linkages between nutrients, algae and COTs. Not so much from a
coastal run-off perspective but more related to harvesting of herbivores
omnivores in the aquarium trade. Efate has an very active fish and
invertebrate export. COT outbreaks are occurring in their collection
as well as a number of other areas. I realise there are numerous factors
play. Last year this was a fairly heated topic here with many differing
opinions and official responses denying any connections between the
and COTs. However, both 'outbreaks' continue on Efate ...

I have been asked by a group made up of villagers, ex-pat residents, and
others seeking answers to these questions to do what I can. My
background is
such that I believe these hypotheses to be true, although I have not
out the research. I trust that others have. After last years' mess on
subject I have maintained a fairly low profile but now there are many
here that are furious that nothing beyond individual groups doing COT
removals has been done. So I find myself reluctantly re-entering the
discussion of trying to persuade players that should know better, again.
am not entering that foray again without published references.

I am looking for references on any of the following points. I am not
for an emotional back-and-forth between proponents and opponents of the
aquarium trade. The coral list has already been used for that.

Pre-outbreak stimuli
-Quite a bit of research suggests that COTs thrive in the presence of
pollution and algae that ensues. A lot of that comes from excessive
discharges in areas of run-off, like Mele Bay.
Moreover, further research suggests that nutrient discharges can
stimulate reproduction in COTs, outside of their normal spawning times
Dec & Jan (when, by the way, COTs should not be collected because
handling can trigger early spawning). Other research goes yet further
and suggests that loss of herbivores and omnivores can stimulate
COTs to eat more, and faster. This happens because in the absence of
such fish in particular, there is more algae and especially
left on the reef. And that brings us back to the first point above, that
COTs thrive in algae conditions. So its really about what causes the
not so much as what causes the COTs directly. There is correlation
aquarium fish collection and COTs outbreaks with respect to the issue of
the algae. It makes sense. Albeit this has not conclusively been shown
be cause-effect, only a correlation. It is just my personal opinion and
opinion of others that actually study
the matter. There is a heck of alot of 'bad' algae around in current
collection areas, particularly in Mele Bay. This might help to explain
COT explosion on Efate (fish collection and nutrient pollution) and
Santo (some nutrient pollution), but not on Epi.

-Research is not out yet on pelagic and benthic movement of COTs. Some
people speculate that spawning COTs in Fiji are one reason behind the
here. I find that a bit far-fetched but who knows? I've seen juveniles,
not anything near larval stages. Could this be the source for COTs on
Epi? I
don't really know. The point is that it doesn't have to be the same
everywhere. Its a mixed bag, as with most disturbances in the marine
environment. It is also possible that the Epi population came from
Efate. I
heard that a few years back it was on Emae, before it hit North Efate.
Emae to Epi makes sense, but why Emae?

-It is clear that the Triton shell and the Napoleon are natural
predators of
COTs. But is their depletion through local consumption enough to explain
Epi? I doubt it. Its definitely a contributor though.

Post-outbreak response
-It is clear however that coral recruitment on COTs impacted reefs (or
impacted reefs that have lost coral) will decrease if hervivores and
omnivores are in less supply than normal. The algae prevents new coral
settling. Moreover, dead coral covered in algae breaks off, and
to loose rubble further limiting coral recruitment not to mention same
rubble that moves around in surge which damages surviving corals. Thus I
sincerely believe
that what we are losing now in terms of coral cover on Efate will not
back until herbivore and omnivore fish populations return to normal.
then it will take a long time, considering all the pollution and global
climate stressors acting concurrently. Even then it may be too little,
too late. That in my mind is potentially a much more far-reaching issue
than determining what is causing the outbreak in the first place.

The latter point is sufficient in my mind to take a good, hard look at
impacts of the aquarium trade here in Vanuatu.

Thank you,


Karl Fellenius, Director &
Michele Dricot, Manager

Vaughani Shores Vanuatu
Pangona Estates, Efate
Postal Box 3158
Port Vila

office       +678 29273 (AWARE)
mobileK   +678 7773329
mobileM  +678 7773326
email       VaughaniShores at vanuatu.com.vu
web         http://www.diveVanuatu.org
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Message: 5
Date: Mon, 19 Jan 2009 10:48:36 -0500
From: Gene Shinn <eshinn at marine.usf.edu>
Subject: [Coral-List] Over fishing contributing to ocean
To: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
Message-ID: <a06230907c59a4feb9da8@[]>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii" ; format="flowed"

An interesting article about an article published in Science. Gene

Fish an ally against climate change

     * New Scientist 13:02 16 January 2009 by Catherine Brahic

An unlikely ally may have been found in the fight against the effects 
of climate change. Fish excretions seem to play a key role in 
maintaining the ocean's delicate pH balance, says a study that also 
reveals that there are 2 billion tonnes of fish in the world's oceans.

Bony fish excrete lumps of calcium carbonate, known as "gut rocks" 
which are thought to dissolve in the upper layers of the ocean. A 
team led by Rod Wilson of the University of Exeter in the UK has now 
shown that the sheer amount of gut rocks produced plays a key role in 
buffering the carbon dioxide that acidifies seawater.

"This study really is the first glimpse of the huge impact fish have 
on our carbon cycle - and why we need them in the ocean," says 
Wilson's colleague Villy Christensen of the University of British 
Columbia in Canada.

Protective role

While marine biologists have known for some time that fish produce 
gut rocks, until now no-one had estimated just how much calcium 
carbonate is spewed out into the ocean in this way.

It was widely believed that most marine carbonate is provided by the 
external skeletons of marine plankton. These microscopic organisms 
are likely to be hard hit as climate change increases the acidity of 
the oceans and their skeletons literally dissolve away.

The new study reveals that fish play an important role in stopping 
this from happening.
ferent models to estimate the amount of fish biomass that is in the 
global oceans, and its distribution.

By drinking salt water, fish ingest a lot of calcium, and they 
excrete more or less calcium carbonate depending on their size and 
the temperature of the water. "For a given total mass of fish, 
smaller fish produce more than bigger fish, and fish at higher 
temperatures produce more than fish at lower temperatures," explains 

Surprise finding

The team then used data on how much carbonate fish produce on average 
to calculate how much the fish biomass represented in their computer 
models are likely to excrete.

This revealed that between 3% and 15% of all the calcium carbonate 
produced in the oceans comes from fish. Wilson says this is a 
conservative estimate - he and his team think the real figure could 
be three times higher.

"I expect it will be a big surprise to most of the ocean scientists 
who study the ocean carbon cycle," says Wilson. "Apart from a handful 
of fish biologists around the world, the scientific community were 
previously unaware that fish produce of any of this chalky mineral, 
let alone enough to be significant on a global scale."

Eric Achterberg of the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, 
UK, says the study offers an insight into an underrepresented marine 
process. "Whether the fish carbonate is really an important 
contribution to the mid-water alkalinity is not certain yet and forms 
an excellent topic of research," he says.

'Unrecognised allies'

Wilson agrees that it is not yet certain whether the gut rocks do 
indeed dissolve in the upper layers of the ocean. Their chemical 
structure suggests that they are very soluble in seawater and should 
readily dissolve. But if future studies show this does not happen, 
this will mean the gut rocks sink to the bottom of the ocean without 
dissolving and buffering the oceans.

Because fish carbonate production goes up with temperature, fish are 
likely to produce more carbonate - and be more effective buffers of 
ocean acidity - as temperatures increase through global warming. 
That's the good news. The bad news is that overfishing may have an 
additional downside: in addition to depleting food stocks, it could 
also deplete the precious carbonate buffer.

Because of the complexity of ocean chemistry, "we cannot really say 
much with any confidence about how overfishing might affect ocean 
acidification says Wilson. "But we definitely need to study this more 
to help make better predictions about these future changes."

"We must buck the current trend of clear-cutting of the oceans and 
foster these unrecognised allies against climate change," says 

Journal reference: Science (DOI: 10.1126/science.1157972)


No Rocks, No Water, No Ecosystem (EAS)
------------------------------------ -----------------------------------
E. A. Shinn, Courtesy Professor
University of South Florida
Marine Science Center (room 204)
140 Seventh Avenue South
St. Petersburg, FL 33701
<eshinn at marine.usf.edu>
Tel 727 553-1158---------------------------------- 


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