[Coral-List] Inquiry to the Coral-l list....
allison.billiam at gmail.com
Fri Jan 11 14:47:31 EST 2013
In response to a few off-list inquiries, some more citations re. palyotoxin:
Attaway, D. H. and L. S. Ciereszko (1974). "Isolation and partial
characterisation of Caribbean palytoxin." Proc. 2nd ICRS 1: 497-504.
Gleibs, S. and D. Mebs (1998). "Sequestration of a marine toxin (Reef
sites)." Coral Reefs 17(4): 338.
Gleibs, S. and D. Mebs (1999). "Distribution and sequestration of palytoxin
in coral reef animals." Toxicon 37: 1521-1527.
In the reefs off the Colombian coast (Caribbean Sea) and around Lizard
Island, Australia (Pacific), palytoxin (PTX), which has been detected in
zoanthid species of the genus Palythoa, also occurred in various other
marine organisms living in close association with zoanthid colonies, e.g.
sponges (Porifera), soft corals (Alcyonaria), gorgonians (Gorgonaria),
mussels, and crustaceans. Predators, e.g. polychaete worms (Hermodice
carunculata), a starfish (Acanthaster planci) and fish (Chaetodon species)
feeding on Palythoa colonies, accumulate high toxin concentrations in their
organs, where PTX is stored in its active form. The high level of toxin
tolerance observed in marine animals may enable the wide distribution of
PTX in marine biota and its transport and sequestration in food chains.
Gleibs, S., D. Mebs, et al. (1995). "Studies on the origin and distribution
of palytoxin in a Caribbean coral-reef." Toxicon 33: 1531-1537.
Randall, J. E. (2005). "Review of Clupeotoxism, an Often Fatal Illness from
the Consumption of Clupeoid Fishes." Pacific Science 59(1): 73-77.
Poisoning from eating clupeoid fishes such as sardines and herrings
(Clupeidae) or anchovies (Engaulidae), termed clupeotoxism, is widespread
in tropical and subtropical areas of the world but rare. A fatal case
occurred in Kaua‘i in 1978 from the consumption of the Marquesan Sardine
(Sardinella marquesensis). This species has been replaced in abundance in
the Hawaiian Islands by another import, the Goldspot Sardine
(Herklotsichthys quadrimaculatus). Onuma et al. (1999) obtained the head of
a specimen of this sardine that caused a fatality in Madagascar and found
that it contained palytoxin. Because bottom sediment was detected on the
gills and in the esophagus, they concluded that the fish is a
bottom-feeder, and the benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis siamensis, known
to produce palytoxin, the toxic organism. The sediment on the gills was
more likely the result of the fish being dragged over the substratum by a
seine. The Goldspot Sardine feeds on zooplankton, not benthic organisms.
Therefore, a pelagic dinoflagellate is the probable producer of palytoxin.
On Fri, Jan 11, 2013 at 11:11 AM, mtupper <mtupper at coastal-resources.org>wrote:
> Hi Mike and List,
> One thing I have often heard from reef aquarium hobbyists is that they
> remove live rock from their tanks and boil it to kill off any unwanted
> that might compete with the coral species they plan on stocking. Several
> have posted warnings on reef aquarium blogs to be very careful when
> boiling live
> rock containing zooanthids, because the fumes are highly toxic and "someone
> almost died" from inhaling the fumes. The fact the person who almost died
> always nameless and referred to in the singular led me to believe this was
> an urban legend, but perhaps someone with more reef aquarium experience
> than I
> would know better.
> Dr. Mark Tupper
> Coastal Resources Association
> 207-10822 City Parkway, Surrey, BC, Canada V3T 0C2
> Email: mtupper at coastal-resources.org
> Tel. 1-604-588-1674; Mobile: 1-604-961-2022
> Philippines Office:
> Poblacion, Sagay, Camiguin, Philippines 9103
> Tel. 63-927-921-9915
> On January 11, 2013 at 7:43 AM "J. Michael Nolan"
> <mnolan at rainforestandreef..org>
> > List Members...
> > A Biology Educator from NY State the following to me yesterday...."A man
> > Long Island was just released from the hospital where he was in critical
> > day-to-day condition after having inhaled toxic venom fumes from coral
> in his
> > saltwater fishtank. There was a full description of his respiratory
> > but I don't remember those details. This is now 3 weeks later, and he
> has just
> > come off oxygen."
> > I looked on the web and could not find any References to it, she said
> > were many links to the situation.
> > Can any of the Coral Experts on the list tell me more? Please e-mail me
> > off-list and I will be pleased to summarize. I know a bit about Coral
> > but nothing like this.
> > Thank you and have a great Friday.
> > Mike Nolan
> > ----------
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