[Coral-List] Paper out - 50 days free download

martina m.milanese at studioassociatogaia.com
Thu Sep 15 12:20:23 EDT 2016

Hi Magnus,

thanks for sharing the two papers - I didn't know the second one, very 

I share your concern about snorkelling. Actually, in my experience 
working in the diving (but also, more in general, in the marine tourism 
business), snorkellers are less experienced and less knowledged about 
the sea. Also, it is much easier to organise a mass excursion with a bus 
of first-time snorkellers than with first-time divers.

In general, for what we may argue that the level can and should be 
improved, divers have received a minimum of training and have expressed 
a certain degree of interest in the sea (a course has a cost and many 
novice divers need to overcome some degrees of a natural sense of fear). 
This does not apply to snorkellers. Additionally, often snorkellers are 
either let alone in the water or guided by staff with a-specific 
training - on the contrary divers are mostly guided, and a dive guide 
has received specific training.

Finally, talking about numbers, it seems clear that snorkellers are many 
more than divers, and that their (potential) impact is very concentrated 
along a limited stretch of very shallow habitats. One may argue that is 
better to sacrify this limited habitats rather than spread impacts at 
differen depths over larger areas. Guess it is a matter of how many 
people, how concerned, and how vulnerable the site.

A pro for snorkelling is: it's something nearly everyone can try. If 
appropriately done (and there are ways to do it right) it's a fantastic 
way to engage people with the sea. So I'd say, as always, it's not the 
thing per se but how it is implemented...


Dr Martina Milanese, PhD

skype: m.milanese
twitter: @martix_m

Italian Mob. (WA) +39-338-1196672
Moroccan Mob. +212-636808514

Studio Associato Gaia Snc dei Dottori Antonio Sarà e Martina Milanese
Via Brigata Liguria 1/9 scala A
16121 Genova - Italy
PI 01600400996

Il 15/09/16 12:32, Magnus L Johnson ha scritto:
> Hi Martina,
> This looks very interesting (especially given some recent passionate discussions on Coral-L!)  You/others might also be interested in these open access and peer-reviewed articles:
> The Relationship between Diver Experience Levels and Perceptions of Attractiveness of Artificial Reefs - Examination of a Potential Management Tool
> http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0068899
> And
> Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies
> https://peerj.com/articles/2175/
> I think artificial reefs have a role to play in reducing the impact of scuba divers (especially trainees) on vulnerable sites by drawing them away.  However there is the argument also that they serve to increase the popularity of diving tourism overall and may in the long term lead to more pressure on natural reefs.
> It is interesting that diving receives lots of attention (~112 000 hits on google scholar) while we pay less attention to snorkelling (~6390 hits) and in my experience the damage to shallow reefs by snorkelers, who you could argue may be less committed (generally speaking) to their hobby and the marine environment, is significant in many places.
> Best wishes, Magnus
> -----Original Message-----
> From: martina [mailto:m.milanese at studioassociatogaia.com]
> Sent: 14 September 2016 21:57
> To: coral-list at coral.aoml.noaa.gov
> Subject: [Coral-List] Paper out - 50 days free download
> Dear all,
> as an output of the ongoing EU-funded project "Green Bubbles RISE for sustainable diving", I'm pleased to announce the publication of the paper:
> Scuba diving tourism systems and sustainability: Perceptions by the scuba diving industry in two Marine Protected Areas. Tourism Management (2017), pp. 385-403 DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2016.09.004
> The paper will enjoy 50-days (until Nov 1st, 2016) free download at this link, courtesy of Elsevier: http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1TiLYxTbMbITH
> Abstract: Scuba diving tourism encourages conservation, generates revenue, and supports local communities. Understanding its interactions with environmental, social, and economic factors is important in the context of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), where dynamics between role players are complex. This study provides insights into the problems affecting the sustainability of the scuba diving tourism industry in two MPAs in Italy and Mozambique. The interactions between the industry and environment, economy, non-monetary aspects, society, governance, and scientific community were investigated via question- naire surveys and interviews with 20 scuba diving operators. Operators felt the importance of scuba diving to themselves, MPAs, and resident communities, although they lamented limited support to the industry by other stakeholders.
> Recommendations to enhance sustainability include actions ranging from engagement in planning and management to education and social responsibility. However, the heterogeneity of issues perceived by the industry, reflected in differences between the case studies, calls for ad hoc measures.
> Please let me thank Serena Lucrezi (corresponding author) for her incredibly focused attitude all along the way, from laying down field work until the final revisions of the proofs. My gratitude also to all other authors, it has been a pleasure (and it still is) working with you!
> Martina
> --
> Dr Martina Milanese, PhD
> skype: m.milanese
> https://it.linkedin.com/in/martina-milanese-46963436
> twitter: @martix_m
> Italian Mob. (WA) +39-338-1196672
> Moroccan Mob. +212-636808514
> Studio Associato Gaia Snc dei Dottori Antonio Sarà e Martina Milanese Via Brigata Liguria 1/9 scala A
> 16121 Genova - Italy
> PI 01600400996
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